Verbs have been divided in to two parts – Finite Verbs and Non-finite Verbs.
Finite Verbs – When the verb is limited by the number and the person of its subject is called Finite Verb. For Example – They have to go there. She has to go there. Has and Have here are Finite Verbs.
Non-finite Verbs – When the verb is not limited by the number and the person of its subject is called Non-Finite verb. For Example – I have to help him. She has to go to Delhi. Help and Go in the sentences are Non-Finite Verbs.
The Non-finite verb is further divided in to three parts –
1. Infinitives 2. Gerunds 3. Participles
Use of Infinitive –
Infinitive is further divided in to Bare Infinitive and To Infinitive
Bare Infinitive or Verb 1st –
1. Bare infinitive is used with modal auxiliary verbs such as can, could, may, might, shall etc.
e.g. I can do this work.
2. With the verbs related with senses such as feel, hear, see, watch, notice etc.
e.g. I saw him go.
She heard me sing.
3. Let + obj + VI .
e.g. Let me take tea.
4. Make + Obj + VI.
e.g. He made me do this work.
5. With the expressions such as had better, had sooner, had rather, would rather, would sooner etc.
e.g. You had better read this book.
Use of Non- Finite Verbs with Examples
6. If but or except is preceded by do/does/ did –
e.g. He did nothing but weep.
7. With the expressions such as Why or Why not to ask questions and give suggestions.
e.g. Why pay more money for this service ?
Use of To + Infinitive –
1. As a subject to a verb –
e.g. To err is human ; to forgive divine.
2. To show purpose –
e.g. He went to Delhi to meet his friend.
3. With the Adverb Too –
e.g. He is too weak to walk.
4. As a complement to a verb –
e.g. His aim is to get first division.
5. With need and dare if they are not used as modals –
e.g. You need to work hard.
6. If the verb Make is used in the passive construction –
e.g. He is made to weep there.
7. Immediately after ordinal numbers –
e.g. He is the first person to come.
8. Immediately after W-H family in a simple sentence –
e.g. I don’t know what to do.
9. With the words such as easy, difficult, able, unable etc.
e.g. This sum is easy to solve.
10. With the phrases such as It is time, it is useless etc.
e.g. It is time to help him.
11. With the following verbs and words – want, wish, glad, happy, intend, prefer, promise etc.
e.g.I want to tell you …….
Use of Gerund – Gerund is formed by using V1 + ing. It functions as a noun.
1. As a subject of the verb-
e.g. Reading is my favourite hobby.
2. As an object of the verb –
e.g. He loves talking with his friends.
3. Immediately after prepositions –
e.g. I am fond of eating sweets.
4. As a complement of a verb –
e.g. Seeing is believing.
5. After Possessives –
e.g. I don’t like his coming here.
e.g. She hates John’s making fun of her.
6. With the words, phrases and verbs such as stop, start, avoid, mind, dislike, hate, worth, no use, no good, can’t help, can’t bear etc.
e.g. I couldn’t help laughing.
Learn the Use of Participles from here. (Participles along with the Types and Examples available on this link.)