In this segment we shall do Perfect Tense and its use in a sentence and then in Common Errors Topic. We have already done Indefinite and Continuous Tenses ( Check links below ) . So focus shall be on the Perfect Tense - Present Perfect/Past Perfect and Future Perfect.
Present Perfect Tense -
This tense shows the work has been accomplished in the present time.
Structure - Sub + has/have + v3+ obj.
e.g. He has taken his breakfast.
1. With the words and phrases such as Once, twice, thrice, four times, many times, several times, yet, already, recently, by now, so far, ever, never, just, lately etc.
e.g. He hasn't come yet.
2. With the action started in past and is still on -
e.g. He has been ill since Sunday.
Past Perfect Tense -
It shows the work was finished in the deep past.
Structure - Sub + had + v3+ obj.
1. If a sentence has two parts and if in one part Past Indefinite ( V2 ) is given, in second part we use Past Perfect -
e.g. The students had read the story before the teacher entered the class room.
She prepared breakfast after I had reached home.
2. In IF Conditional Clause, if in one part would/should/ could/might + have + V3 is given.
e.g. If you had gone there, they would have welcomed you
3. With the phrases having verbs wish and phrases such as as if, as though etc.
e.g. I wish I had been there last week.
Future Perfect Tense -
It shows the work shall have finished in some time in future.
Structure - Sub + will/ shall + have + v3+ obj.
1. In sentences having By + any time + future indicating adverbs ( By this time tomorrow )
She will have finished her work by this tomorrow.
2. To show likelihood or Inference -
You will have read the Ramayana.
3. If two sentences are connected by before or after and if in one part Present Indefinite is given, we use Future Perfect in another part.
e.g. I will have completed my task before you come.